Festival tributee Berry made Tension (1949) and He Ran All the Way (1951) as a Hollywood up-and-comer and Tamango (1957) as a blacklisted exile, based in France. He had too many rich experiences in Europe to feel "cheated" that McCarthyism short-circuited his career, but his outburst indicates how the scars of that era still rankle. I speak to him in a New York hotel room. Sipping coffee and munching matzo, this feisty octogenarian dispenses wisdom like a street-wise zayde. At times his craggy visage, guttural tone, and inertial force recall the expatriate movie tough guy Eddie Constantine, whom he directed in France. Berry is trying to launch two projects in the U.S., and he's agreed to interrupt his search for financing to talk about his films and the real life that influenced them. "The way I changed my name was funny," he recalls, suddenly warming to the subject. "I had written a letter asking to audition as an actor for a Shakespeare festival, and then got a better job, as a comic in the borscht belt. When I reapplied to the Shakespeare festival, I thought they'd be certain to have a record of my last letter, so I went looking for another name to sign the letter with. I remember A&P was having a berry sale -- and John Barrymore was my ideal. John Berry sounded right."
As a young boy, when his mother was busy in her synagogue ladies auxiliary, he'd hang around the restaurant his father owned on 38th Street. To keep him from interfering with the crap game going on in the basement, his father's minions led him to the 38th Street Theater, where he saw Shakespeare's Richard III and patriotic spectacles like The Pony Express and Maryland, My Maryland. Berry got the performing bug and followed it, first as a 15-year-old Catskills comic and later as a member of Orson Welles' Mercury Theater. His opening night in a Catskills kochalayn (a low-rent resort where vacationers cooked in their own rooms) was hardly auspicious. He bounded onstage in his "John Barrymore white silk shirt with the fashionable wide collar" and started to deliver joke after joke to no response -- or, rather, polite silence. Afterward, the proprietor reassured him, "Don't worry, they like you -- they think you're a nice-looking fella, an attractive, charming young man. You've got to understand you can't tell these jokes in English; they only speak Yiddish!"
The Catskills of the '20s and '30s, says Berry, wasn't all cheerful vulgarity and romance on the wing; it was also a place for transplanted Eastern European Jews to re-create the communal lives they left behind and debate the weighty social-cultural issues of the day. To Berry, the Arthur Kober play Having a Wonderful Time caught the high end of the Catskills experience. So when John Garfield (formerly Julie Garfinkel) left the Broadway production to go Hollywood, Berry auditioned for his part. He didn't get it because all he did was "a perfect imitation of Garfield."
What made Garfield so important to an ambitious young actor that he'd want to mimic him? "Garfield was the romantic rebel, the precursor to Dean and Brando," says Berry. "He was a few years older; I followed in his footsteps." However, it was a more flamboyant theatrical rebel, Orson Welles, who gave Berry the experience that landed him on his first Broadway marquee. As part of the Mercury Theater troupe, Berry did everything from work on the stage crew to act in featured roles. He took over the role of Bigger Thomas' lawyer in Richard Wright's Native Son and ended up directing the road company and the show's return to Broadway.
Berry says that his political awakening grew out of the despair and class warfare of the Depression era. Engagement was part of the cultural atmosphere wherever he worked, whether in the Catskills or at the Mercury Theater: "I remember Orson made a speech to Actors Equity about the danger to world democracy and the coming world war if the Republic fell in Spain, and people laughed at him, as if this young contemptuous figure of energy and power didn't know what he was talking about." Berry says he makes no apologies and has few regrets for his political actions, which he describes as anti-fascist and pro-worker. And he has remarkably little bitterness toward the U.S.: "What makes the McCarthy era such a terrible episode in our history is that it's so anti-American, so opposed to our central beliefs. People betrayed their comrades, their friends, their fellow humans, and did all these anti-American activities in the name of anti-communism."
Berry savors the variety and breadth of America's democratic vision. He agrees with his mother, who would sigh and say, "What a blessing to be here." But he concedes that the U.S. doesn't do as well as France or England at honoring visionary artists like Welles. "He never got what he deserved at the end -- he should have made the movie Tim Robbins is making now, The Cradle Will Rock." And does he feel the same way about Garfield? "Absolutely. He was as big as Bogart, and he dared to go independent." It was Garfield who bought the Sam Ross novel at the root of He Ran All the Way, a movie Berry ranks with his peak achievements. The result is a cross between Odd Man Out and The Desperate Hours, with Garfield as an animalistic gunman on the lam and Shelley Winters as a naive working-class gal who inadvertently allows him to turn her family's apartment into a hide-out. Both the movie and Garfield's performance have an urgency that feels right for Garfield's final work before his death of a heart attack and Berry's last before his blacklisting. But according to the director, neither he nor Garfield suspected that it would be a valedictory: "I'd been through scares before. And Garfield was devoted to what he saw as the progressive, patriotic core of this country; you couldn't even question the Korean War with him. It was after we finished the movie that the witch-hunters put the pressure on, digging up a membership he had at 15 in the Young Pioneers."
Ideological interpretations may be foisted on the film retrospectively, but Berry insists that the intensity of He Ran All the Way simply grew out of an honest exploration of the story. Garfield and company listened to the death rattles of a desperate, feral man and discerned the chords that could still link him to humanity. Working with writers Hugo Butler, Guy Endore, and (the uncredited) Dalton Trumbo, Berry turned He Ran All the Way into an action-movie meditation on manhood and on what he calls his major preoccupation, "the need for love and trust." He's most proud of the ironic ending in which Garfield, lying in the gutter, realizes that Winters did love him and honored a deal she made with him. "The way we first had it, she sticks a knife in him up in the apartment because he's a bad fella. I love Shelley's performance, but we fought over it, because she really wanted to stick a knife in him. I thought that would be too simplistic." Berry also tussled with the legendary cinematographer James Wong Howe, who had directorial ambitions himself. "We came into conflict on the first day of shooting and it didn't stop. When we did the final image, he said he couldn't get the shot of Garfield in the street approaching the car in its headlights. I said I'd do it myself. Of course, I couldn't; he came back and figured it out. I grew to have great affection for him, and marvelous lighting came out of our creative tension."
Of just plain Tension, Berry says, "It's a good piece of moviemaking. But I think its only message is that if you can buy contact lenses, you'll have a happy life." He's more pleased with Tamango: "It was the first movie to acknowledge what happened on the slave ships. And though Steven Spielberg is a fabulously talented director, I think the differences between Amistad and Tamango are interesting -- I told the whole goddamn story from the slaves' point of view." Berry handed the juicy dramatic role of the white captain's slave mistress to a woman often called "the black Marilyn," Dorothy Dandridge. "The character she played in the movie," says Berry, "was in some ways a metaphor of her career. She, too, was enslaved -- by our notions of what a black actress could be."
-- Michael Sragow
John Berry is saluted by the festival this year as part of an occasional series, "The Unvanquished," for directors whose work was disrupted for political reasons. Following is a schedule of Berry films at this year's fest:
He Ran All the Way 7 p.m., April 24, Castro
Tamango 7 p.m., April 26, Castro
Tension 10 p.m., May 7, Castro